The Public India


Even though Yogi Adityanath is now back as Chief Minister, the 2022 Uttar Pradesh Assembly election results can at best be taken with a pinch of salt. The general mood during the campaign was for change. People wanted the Bhartiya Janata Party government to go. People belonging to communities other than Yadav and Muslim, who were anyway believed to be solidly standing with Samajwadi Party, wanted to see Akhilesh Yadav back as CM, who was drawing more people in his rallies than either Yogi or Modi. However, results were contrary to common people’s expectations.

It is difficult to believe that in Lakhimpur Khiri, where Union Minister Ajay Mishra Teni’s son mowed done five people, the Minister was warned by Rakesh Tikait, the farmer leader, to not go for inauguration of a sugar mill otherwise he would face the ire of farmers, the Minister had to cast his own vote during the same elections amidst high security of central forces and people were agitated on bail given to the son Ashish Mishra, the BJP has won all seats.

Similarly, in Hathras reserved constituency, in spite of a gruesome rape of a Dalit girl last year, her death in hospital later, cremation of her body by police in early hours of morning instead of handing it over to her family and administration appearing to be trying to save the four upper caste accused men, there was resentment among people but here again BJP has been victorious.

The affect of farmers’ movement in western UP was such that BJP candidates could not enter some villages for campaigning. This was bound to adversely impact BJP’s performance in the first phase of election and then it was assumed that BJP would not be able to recover in subsequent phases from the setback it’ll receive here.

Also Read: Post-Victory Dilemma of BJP

Just before the elections were announced, Shikha Pal, B.Ed., was atop an overhead water tank for over 150 days at the Education Directorate in Lucknow demanding that vacant teachers’ positions be filled with qualified candidates. Ambulance drivers, who were compared with God during Corona crisis and on whom the state government had showered flower petals from helicopter were laid off by the private company which had the contract with government to run the service, were protesting and in spite of intervention by Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh associated trade union Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh there was no favourable response. How do we believe that youth who got beaten up in Prayagraj in the context of Railway recruitment controversy and their families could support BJP? There was widespread anger among youth related to jobs just before the elections.

Two things which seemed to be going in favour of BJP were the Kisan Samman Nidhi and the free ration distribution. However, before the fourth phase stray cattle became an issue so much so that Narendra Modi had to declare in Unnao that, if re-elected, the BJP government would buy the cowdung and Yogi Adityanath promised Rs. 900 per month per cattle to help the farmers meet the cost of keeping unproductive cattle. Stray cattle had become irritants for farmers as early as 2017, soon after Yogi took over the reins in UP the first time but the BJP had somehow managed to avoid an electoral debacle because of this in 2019. But the stray cattle caught up with them this time and then it became obvious that the Kisan Samman Nidhi or the free ration was actually a compensation to farmers for the crops which were being devoured by stray cattle. The farmers have been a harassed lot keeping awake all night trying to save their standing crops.

How, then, was the BJP, facing such tremendous odds, able to pull through? Were Electronic Voting Machines manipulated or did the government machinery help BJP win?

Just before the counting day, 10 March, EVMs or ballot papers were caught in Azamgarh, Prayagraj, Bareilly, Sonebhadra, Sant Kabir Nagar and Varanasi, mostly in government vehicles. This gives an indication that there were attempts by the administration to alter the EVMs or ballot papers probably in large number of constituencies. It is just that at the abovementioned places they were caught because the information was probably leaked by one among the government employees, not all of whom were sympathetic to the government this time. Government officials have been known to change ballot boxes in the past. It is quite possible that they indulge in EVM replacements now. Reports from some counting centres indicate that there were EVMs close to 99% charged which were yielding results in favour of BJP more than compared with other EVMs which were just 60-70% charged. Could these almost fully charged EVMs have been the replaced ones?

Out of 29 constituencies in which the margin of victory was less than 2000 votes, the BJP has won 19. In 15 seats where the margin of victory was less than 1000 votes the number of postal ballots is more than the victory margin. So, in seats where the margin of victory was small, it may have been possible to merely manipulate the postal ballots to change the result without doing anything to the EVMs. For example, in Kursi Vidhan Sabha constituency in Barabanki district, the Samajwadi Party candidate Rakesh Verma was declared winner. When he returned after garlanding the statue of his late father Beni Prasad Verma he was told that the BJP candidate Sakendra Pratap had won by 217 votes. The number of postal ballots here was 618.

To lay to rest any lingering doubt in the minds of electorate that EVMs were changed or tampered with, the Election Commission of India could present before the people, even now, the results of counting the VVPAT slips for all centres and all machines. Right now there is a provision to verify result from EVM with VVPAT slips counting at 5 randomly chosen booths of every Assembly constituency. But these results are never reported in press. ECI should bring some transparency in this process and undertake 100% counting of VVPAT slips. This would also satisfy the people who demand going back to the ballot paper system as counting 100% slips would be akin to counting ballot papers.

By Sandeep Pandey,Pawan Singh and Devesh Patel
Phone: 0522 2355978, 3564437, 9954353813, 9795000546, 9811508843
Authors are associated with Socialist Party (India).

Before the COVID, some 50% of the children worldwide could not read or write. Since the COVID, the situation has been far worse. UNESCO suggests COVID has wiped out nearly 20 years of gains in education. Girls and young women have been most disproportionately affected.

If there is a fire in the house, we drop everything else, and everyone gets involved. Likewise, in education, we immediately need a fresh wave of activism and disruptive new solutions. It is not enough to rely on the teachers alone, just as we did not rely on the doctors during the COVID emergency.

We urgently need all hands on deck: the government, corporates, funding agencies, civil societies, voluntary organizations/NGOs, entire communities, university students, student volunteers, and everyone else.

The Pandemic has disproportionately affected the education of girls. The best education programs of the past are not a sufficient guide to the future, nor to the intense crises currently facing education.

System-wide and systemic approaches, an enabling policy environment, and bolder policy measures, combined with disruptive teaching methods, are required along with an inclusive education—no girl left behind—and quality education for all as envisaged by SDG 4.

Grave challenges ahead for BJP if it loses UP Elections 2022
Operation Ganga: A PR exercise gone wrong

How can we tackle this mammoth problem? 

Through its New Education Policy (NEP2020) and the NIPUN Bharat mission, the Government, has accorded the highest importance to foundational literacy and numeracy, and State Governments of India are coming up with concrete plans to implement it.

“The highest priority of the education system will be to achieve universal foundational literacy and numeracy in primary school by 2025. The rest of this Policy will become relevant for our students only if this most basic learning requirement (i.e., reading, writing, and arithmetic at the foundational level) is first achieved.” (NEP2020)

National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy, NIPUN Bharat, has launched the Education Ministry of India under National Education Policy 2020. This scheme ensures that every child in India gains foundational numeracy and literacy by the end of Grade 3, by 2026-27. It instructs teachers and educators to prepare a study plan that develops the students’ literacy and basic language skills, transforming the monotonous education system into integrated, enjoyable, all-inclusive, and engaging. Among other actions, it asks volunteer teachers to hold lessons, prepare lesson plans, assign tasks to students, administer tests, grade student work, and participate in continuing education. (NIPUN Bharat)

The Policy is candid and clear. Yet, the current actions and delivery mechanisms are neither sufficient nor swift enough to fill the learning gaps, teach the foundational skills, and enroll all the ‘missing children’, all in one deep breath. We can agree that the problem is far deeper and wider and requires novel solutions that are dramatic and immediate.

The policy recommendations

My key policy recommendation for education is a Time-Bound People’s Movement involving all segments of society, and especially drawing upon communities as basic units of transformation. This requires us to:

  1. Treat FLN mission as a national emergency. Direct all resources towards education, as we did for the COVID. This means a commitment to a country-wide government-led people’s movement like was done to eradicate polio in the 1990s in which every government employee was given targets.
  2. Create a time-bound mission for 1 year. Enthusiasm cannot be maintained over a prolonged period. A people’s movement may be extended for one more year to reach the last adult or child. We can further invite the involvement of all segments of society, corporations, NGOs, private schools, and universities.
  3. Use proven methods that have the potential to hugely scale-up FLN quickly. It is possible to make a person FLN capable within three to six months, with just 90 sessions of 20 minutes from the start date using disruptive teaching methods such as Global Dream Disruptive FLN that came out of many trials and research.
  4. Deliberately involve women. Our experimental work in Karouni village in Lucknow has shown it is possible to make big strides in a short period using a people’s movement in which women and youth, including student volunteers, play a critical role. The women in their own communities can further be empowered to ensure all girls and boys are enrolled and attending school. They can hold community-based classes for children and adults. Women are the most powerful antidote to the problem of literacy anywhere. If they take the lead in their communities, they can turn entire communities around. We need to involve everyone, but in particular, empower the women.
  5. Ask everyone to come forward. When the government leads a people’s movement, everyone will come forward. No other action will be stronger or faster than to involve entire populations. We found this happening in Karouni, where we created a movement for literacy in the microcosm of a village. When we asked the women volunteers what motivated them to get involved and to continue the teaching work without any compensation, they said: Samman (greater respect in their communities) and Desh Bhakti (a desire to serve the nation). Such feelings of service to the nation have hardly been evoked in the recent past. People are ready and waiting.
  6. Develop an app for education similar to Aarogya Setu. An app such as Aarogya Setu for education can help enumerate every girl and boy child, and all adolescents monitor their enrolment and attendance. This app could include a door-to-door survey in each community nationwide to identify and enrol all children, especially the girls. We also suggest a helpline for girls and most disadvantaged children. These measures can help us find the ‘missing children’ and bring them back into the fold of education and the Samagra Shiksha scheme for OoSC (Out-of-school children).
  7. Increase financial investment in education. Fund those activities that specifically target adolescent girls’ education in secondary schools. It is one of the most transformative development strategies. These measures may include cash transfers or conditional cash transfers, aimed particularly at girls’ transition to and retention in secondary schools. Ensure that government budgets are gender-responsive and that all national education plans and policies prioritize gender equality.
  8. Accelerate PPPs or Public-Private Partnerships. Among other governance models, the PPP may be the best and quickest alternative combined with conditional cash transfer such as direct benefit transfer schemes India has successfully used in other sectors. The PPP is simple and largely expense-free. Many private schools and school chains will be happy to partner with the government to run their schools in a PPP modality.

Creating a new model of accountability

Away from the typical carrot and stick approaches, the threat of transfers, or reprimand, we need a novel model of accountability that comes from within. Cultivating intrinsic motivation yields dividends year after year; it harvests an inner sense of responsibility and a deeper commitment. It also inspires greater personal and professional satisfaction.

Research shared by Andreas Schleicher, Head, PISA, shows that when teachers share their classroom practice with other teachers, it leads to better practice. This new peer dynamic leads to new psychology and wider accountability. These sharing spaces at the local, regional and national levels lead to the cross-fertilization of ideas and improved practice. These, in turn, lead to greater satisfaction and fuel intrinsic motivation.

To share their successes, teachers will begin to undertake new and innovative work with their children. They will collect evidence of their new and innovative work.

We can mainstream these teacher sharing spaces in a teacher’s monthly timetable. This will lead to a better outcome than awards that have a short-lived impact. The best praise for a teacher is when they feel appreciated by their own peers, and when their students perform well.

For decades, we have tried the model of extrinsic accountability, rewards, and punishment. Now it is time to try out intrinsic motivation.

What are the indicators that intrinsic motivation is working? How can we train the teachers better?

It is easy to tell when a teacher is intrinsically motivated. We can see them spending more time in the school and on teaching. They spend more of their time learning and looking for resources on the internet, for example. We know many such government teachers such as Ugrasen Verma of Shravasti. He keeps searching the net for ideas, and on one of his searches, he ran into Global Dream. He downloaded the Toolkits and immediately printed them with his own funds, in color, for his Grades 1 and 2 children. The actions of such teachers result in greater student attendance and improved performance. These teachers become even more extraordinary with time. We just need a critical number of them to tip the balance.

Creating intrinsic motivation is far more powerful than the usual regimes of training that teachers receive. Most of the training is soon forgotten and rarely translated into classroom practice.

We also need to focus professional development on gender-responsive pedagogies. We need more rigorous scrutiny of teaching-learning materials for removing gender bias, among others.

Where is the child in this process?

It is important to consider how children feel, especially the girl child. Does she feel safe in school or in coming and going to the school? How is her social well-being and emotional health? Children should be able to express their views.

Joyful learning brings children into the fold of learning; boredom does the opposite (-0.13 effect size by John Hattie). The enjoyment of learning environments influences children’s development and disposition to later schooling.

A desire to improve equity for the disadvantaged children, creating more sensitivity, and a climate of caring and responsibility towards the girl-child needs to be combined with more mentorship and guidance by the teacher, better relationships within the school, between students, teachers and the school head.

(Author is Dr. Sunita Gandhi, Former Economist, The World Bank, a visionary educationist who launched ALfA, Accelerating Learning for All process and the Global Dream Disruptive FLN Campaign to attain 100% foundational literacy and numeracy.)


By- Atam Jeet Singh

The Indian government is turning the evacuation of students from the war-torn country into a massive public relations exercise, blaming students for studying abroad. The government should not forget that they did not say a word against the Russian military offensive.

Putin’s war on Ukraine has entered its next phase, responsible for the destruction of civilian facilities. The Indian Aviation Ministry says 17 flights with around 3,500 Indians are expected to arrive in India on Friday. War is going on in Ukraine and Prime Minister Modi is holding an election meeting in Banaras.

West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee said at a rally that “If you have such good relations with Putin then you already knew that war was going to happen, then why didn’t you bring Indian students back home?”

Viral Videos

A video has gone viral of an Indian student in Kharkiv, Ukraine, saying, “I am trying to enter a train. We are here in Kholodna. Waiting for help but we are not being allowed on the train from Kharkiv to Leiv.” A student shared a video of a blast at the campus in which more than 400 Indian students trapped in Ukraine’s Sumy University have alleged that there has been no help being provided since the start of the war.

In another video, an Indian student from Vinnytsia University has sent the video from the Romania-Ukraine border. He says students waited in queues for 36 hours to enter Romania.

There are about 700-800 Indian students at a shelter in Pisochin, near Kharkiv. They have no blankets and almost no food. They had reached there yesterday after a warning from the Indian embassy. At present there is no help from Indian authorities what should they do now?

Watch this:

In a recent tweet, the Indian consulate in Ukraine has asked all Indian citizens who are in Kharkiv, except Pisochin, to fill up the registration form on an urgent basis.

The Ministry of External Affairs says that fifteen flights were landed in India during the last 24 hours and more than 3,000 Indians have been brought back safely. In fact, the citizens of most countries had already left Ukraine because their embassy gave directions in time.

A student said through a TV interview that she did not get any help from the Indian embassy and reached the border with other students, and got flight facilities from Romania to reach back home. She said, “immigration is a government’s duty, not a favor”.

Read also:
Ukraine-Russia War: Did Putin make a tactical mistake?
Russia-Ukraine War: Indian student Naveen shot dead

The direct impact of the war between Russia and Ukraine is also visible in India. An Indian student has died in the war that broke out in Ukraine. The deceased student has been identified as Naveen, who hails from Karnataka.

So far it has not been confirmed from whose side Naveen was killed in the attack. On behalf of the Indian students, a request has been made to the embassy for help. The death of the student has also been confirmed by Foreign Ministry spokesperson Arindam Bagchi. Arindam tweeted, “We confirm with great sadness that an Indian student has lost his life in a shootout in Kharkiv this morning. The ministry is in touch with the family of the deceased student.

The ministry said that we express our condolences and sympathies to the family regarding this tragic incident. Not only this, he said that the foreign secretary has issued summons to the ambassadors of Russia and Ukraine. Demands have been made from both countries to make arrangements for the safe evacuation of Indian students. Some Indian students are still trapped in Kharkiv and other cities and efforts have been stepped up by the government to rescue them. Today the Air Force has also been ordered to join Operation Ganga on behalf of PM Narendra Modi. Indian Air Force’s C-17 Globemaster aircraft will be engaged in the work of evacuation of Indians stranded in Ukraine.

20,000 Indians live in Ukraine, half still waiting to return

There are around 20,000 Indians living in Ukraine. Most of these people are students, who were living in Ukraine to study medical and other courses. Since the war in Ukraine and Russia, about 10,000 Indians have returned home so far. Of these, 8,000 people have returned on their own, while 1,500 have been brought back through the efforts of the Government of India. Meanwhile, a warning has once again been issued by the Ministry of External Affairs to the Indians living in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.

Meanwhile, a warning has once again been issued by the Ministry of External Affairs to the Indians living in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. The Embassy in Ukraine has issued an advisory to Indians to leave Kyiv immediately and exit by any means possible.


As the Assembly Elections in Uttar Pradesh are undergoing and 2 Phases of polling have been completed, the third phase of polling is due on 20th February 2022. Looking at the current scenario, Akhilesh Yadav, National President of the Samajwadi Party seems to be ahead of BJP. Reportedly, when the elections began, BJP hoped to get a pace from Jat land of Western UP but things didn’t go as per the BJP exceptions. Let’s understand in 11 points, why Akhilesh Yadav is ahead of the BJP.

1- Anti-incumbency of Double Engine: Although BJP claims double engine as their strength of development on the ground but proving to be the weakest point for BJP as the public is annoyed by inflation & unemployment. Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath has nothing to tell about his achievement except polarisation in the name of Hindus & Muslims and ramming bulldozers on criminals while PM Narendra Modi doesn’t give any clear roadmap of development. He has failed on many occasions to deliver his promises.

2- Covid Mismanagement: Yogi Adityanath’s biggest failure was the Corona Mismanagement and the public has not forgotten the havoc they faced in the second wave of Covid Pandemic in 2021. People are running here and there for oxygen cylinders and the government’s health infrastructure had completely collapsed. People still remember those scary days which BJP wants people to forget as soon as possible.

3- Farmers Agitation: Farmers’ Movement against 3 Central Farm Laws is another reason which makes BJP lose UP Assembly Polls. Sanyukt Kisan Morcha is also involved in campaigning against Narendra Modi Government as it has not fulfilled its promise made to farmers in order to end the farmer’s movement on the border of Delhi. 

4- Jayant Chaudhary Factor: Akhilesh Yadav’s alliance with Jayant Chaudhary is also proving to be helpful to him as Jayant brings the goodwill of Chaudhary Charan Singh with him. His father Chaudhary Ajit Singh who passed away a few months back has played a very crucial role in order to support Rakesh Tikait.

5- Elections Manifesto: BJP has released a vague manifesto with nothing specific commitments while Samajwadi Party has given a detailed Election Manifesto with certain and quantifiable commitments. 300 Units of free electricity and restoration of the old pension scheme may prove to be the trump card for him.

6- Akhilesh’s restraint: Though BJP has been providing Akhilesh Yadav by several name callings like Abbajaan, Tamachawaadi, or Namazwaadi, so far Akhilesh Yadav has shown tremendous restraint and not reacting any of these frivolous provocations. 

7- Azam Khan: One of the senior-most leaders of the Samajwadi Party, Mohd. Azam Khan is in jail for the last 2 years and there are about 87 cases lodged against him. However, he has been given bail in 87 cases but the Yogi Adityanath Government is anyhow stalling his bail in the last 3 cases. These actions of the BJP are whipping lots of sympathies in favor of Akhilesh Yadav, especially in the regions where the Muslims are in pretty good numbers.

8- Tickets Distribution: Ticket distribution to candidates is another reason where Akhilesh Yadav has gained lots of strength. Where BJP has faced feud due to tickets distribution and its rebels are leaving the party, Akhilesh Yadav has managed this crucial factor very well. He is meeting all the aspirants and making them understand the importance of remaining united. His pacifying skills are making him a leader of tomorrow.

9- Pre-Poll Alliances: This is the biggest advantage Akhilesh Yadav gained over BJP and he was able to stitch with small parties, especially the OBC parties like SBSP, Mahaan Dal, and Apna Dal (K), He did not go for the alliance with larger parties like Congress in 2017 and he was able to bring OBC Leader Swami Prasad Maurya on his side.

10- Attack on BJP Policies: Akhilesh Yadav is clear about his political enemy in UP so he is taking head-on with it. He is systemically attacking BJP’s policies while BJP is busy with its negative campaigning.

11- Akhilesh Yadav’s good work in the last term: Akhilesh Yadav has done some really good jobs during his last term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from 2012 to 2017 and he is asking people to vote for him on those developments. Lucknow-Agra Expressway, Metro in Lucknow, Laptop Distribution, Dial 100, 1090 Women Power Line, 102 Ambulance Service are a few of the good works done by Akhilesh Yadav.

Watch Video:

Read More:
http://UP Assembly Elections 2022: Where is it going after 2 Phases of polling?

The ongoing Uttar Pradesh Assembly Elections 2022 are in the interesting condition where the ruling BJP is claiming to return to power on his good work, however, the ground situation is different from their claims. Akhilesh Yadav led Samajwadi Party seems to be leading in the first 2 Phases of polling in western UP. BJP claims that they will make a come back in the later phase of elections but issues of the general public are far more serious than BJP’s claims. Anand Vardhan Singh counts a few deeds of BJP while in power and people should or shouldn’t vote for BJP.

Senior journalist Prof. Abhay Dubey, former Professor at CSDS, New Delhi, and now with Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University about the ongoing Uttar Pradesh Assembly Elections 2022 in which they discuss the scenario after 1st Phase of Polling in UP Polls 2022. In the 2017 Assembly Elections BJP has swept this region where it got 53 Assembly Seats out of 58 Seats. But this time the wave is Anti-BJP and the Samajwadi Party and Rashtriya Lok Dal SP-RLD alliance have an advantage. Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath is facing anti-incumbency and this is mainly because of farmers’ protests against 3 Central Agri Farm Laws which were brought by Narendra Modi Government. It is apparent that BJP’s tactics to polarise in the name of Hindu-Muslim is not working and Jat and Muslim voters are coming along to defeat BJP. BSP has also got a stronghold in this region which may also become a reason to substantial dent of BJP.

Hijab Controversy in Karnataka where female students were stopped entering college with Hijab on. 2 Days a Muslim girl wearing Hijab entered her college and several Hindu demonstrators heckled her chanting Jai Shri Ram while the girl replied to them by shouting Allah Hu Akbar. As the controversy arose, the matter has been taken to the High Court of Karnataka where a larger bench of Judges is hearing the matter. Anand Vardhan Singh explains the whole matter and he also talks about the bail granted to the son of Union Minister Ajay Mishra alias Teni, Ashish Mishra alias Monu in the Lakhimpur Case where he allegedly moved over his Thar on the innocent farmers who were returning from a peaceful protest. He also talks about Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s interview with ANI in which he gave an election-like speech despite the model code of conduct in force.

the BJP Manifesto, popularly called Lok Kalyan Sankalp Patra for UP Assembly Elections 2022 in which it has made some vague promises. BJP has made promises like 200 Buses, doubling the State GDP of UP, creation of job opportunities, free bus rides for women above 60 years of age, etc. Few promises are made on communal lines like Live Jihad or free LPG Cylinders on Holi and Diwali which shows that BJP has released a manifesto on communal lines.

While Akhilesh Yadav has released Samajwadi Party’s manifesto which is more concrete and quantifiable. SP has promised free electricity up to 300 units and Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme just like MNREGA. While Akhilesh Yadav’s announcement of bringing back the old pension scheme might prove to be a trump card in UP Assembly Polls 2022 and BJP Manifesto seems to be a sheer communal Jumla.

Amid the Ukraine-Russia crisis, the Russian President statesman has same Russia has partly withdrawn its troops from land borders however in step with USA President Joe Biden, their square measure still one,00,000 to 1,50,000 soldier prepared for the attack on Kyiv, the capital of the land. However, a national leader has claimed that they’re able to speak with the USA and international organizations. Meanwhile, a series of cyberattacks weekday knocked the websites of the Ukrainian army, the defense ministry, and major banks offline. a minimum of ten Ukrainian websites were unreached thanks to the attacks, together with the defense, foreign, and culture ministries and Ukraine’s 2 largest state banks. One European diplomat told Reuters that cyberattacks were a long part of Russian strategy, and had been employed by Moscow in past military confrontations with Georgia and land. “It’s a part of their playbook,” the official same. Russian President statesman is same that Moscow is prepared for talks with the North American country and international organization on limits for missile deployments and military transparency. Speaking once talks with German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, national leader same the North American country and international organization rejected Moscow’s demand to stay land and alternative ex-Soviet nations out of the international organization, halt weapons deployments close to Russian borders and roll back alliance forces from Japanese Europe.

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